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Saturday, March 30, 2013

ஆய கலைகள் அறுபத்து நான்கும் எவை?

1. எழுத்திலக்கணம் (அக்ஷரஇலக்கணம்);
2. எழுத்தாற்றல் (லிபிதம்);
3. கணிதம்;
4. மறைநூல் (வேதம்);
5. தொன்மம் (புராணம்);
6. இலக்கணம் (வியாகரணம்);
7. நயனூல் (நீதி சாத்திரம்);
8. கணியம் (சோதிட சாத்திரம்);
9. அறநூல் (தரும சாத்திரம்);
10. ஓகநூல் (யோக சாத்திரம்);
11. மந்திர நூல் (மந்திர சாத்திரம்);
12. நிமித்திக நூல் (சகுன சாத்திரம்);
13. கம்மிய நூல் (சிற்ப சாத்திரம்);
14. மருத்துவ நூல் ( வைத்திய சாத்திரம்);
15. உறுப்பமைவு நூல் (உருவ சாத்திரம்);
16. மறவனப்பு (இதிகாசம்);
17. வனப்பு;
18. அணிநூல் (அலங்காரம்);
19. மதுரமொழிவு (மதுரபாடணம்); இனியவை பேசுதல்/வசீகரித்தல்
 20. நாடகம்;
21. நடம்;
22. ஒலிநுட்ப அறிவு (சத்தப் பிரமம்);
23. யாழ் (வீணை);
24. குழல்;
25. மதங்கம் (மிருதங்கம்);
26. தாளம்;
27. விற்பயிற்சி (அத்திரவித்தை);
28. பொன் நோட்டம் (கனக பரீட்சை);
29. தேர்ப்பயிற்சி (ரத ப்ரீட்சை);
30. யானையேற்றம் (கச பரீட்சை);
31. குதிரையேற்றம் (அசுவ பரீட்சை);
32. மணிநோட்டம் (ரத்தின பரீட்சை);
33. நிலத்து நூல்/மண்ணியல் (பூமி பரீட்சை);
34. போர்ப்பயிற்சி (சங்கிராமவிலக்கணம்);
35. மல்லம் (மல்ல யுத்தம்);
36. கவர்ச்சி (ஆகருடணம்);
37. ஓட்டுகை (உச்சாடணம்);
38. நட்புப் பிரிப்பு (வித்துவேடணம்);
39. காமநூல் (மதன சாத்திரம்);
40. மயக்குநூல் (மோகனம்);
41. வசியம் (வசீகரணம்);
42. இதளியம் (ரசவாதம்);
43. இன்னிசைப் பயிற்சி (காந்தருவ வாதம்);
44. பிறவுயிர் மொழியறிகை (பைபீல வாதம்);
45. மகிழுறுத்தம் (கவுத்துக வாதம்);
46. நாடிப்பயிற்சி (தாது வாதம்);
47. கலுழம் (காருடம்);
48. இழப்பறிகை (நட்டம்);
49. மறைத்ததையறிதல் (முஷ்டி);
50. வான்புகவு (ஆகாயப் பிரவேசம்);
51. வான்செலவு (ஆகாய கமனம்);
52. கூடுவிட்டுக் கூடுபாய்தல் (பரகாயப் பிரவேசம்);
53. தன்னுருக் கரத்தல் (அதிருசியம்);
54. மாயச்செய்கை (இந்திரசாலம்);
55. பெருமாயச்செய்கை (மகேந்திரசாலம்);
56. அழற்கட்டு (அக்கினித் தம்பனம்);
57. நீர்க்கட்டு (சலத்தம்பனம்);
58. வளிக்கட்டு (வாயுத்தம்பனம்);
59. கண்கட்டு (திருட்டித்தம்பனம்);
60. நாவுக்கட்டு (வாக்குத்தம்பனம்);
61. விந்துக்கட்டு (சுக்கிலத்தம்பனம்);
62. புதையற்கட்டு (கனனத்தம்பனம்);
63. வாட்கட்டு (கட்கத்தம்பனம்);
64. சூனியம் (அவத்தைப் பிரயோகம்)

Sunday, March 24, 2013

LEARNING TO LIVE WITHOUT RECOGNITION IS A SKILL!!!!


There was a farmer who had a horse and a goat…..
One day, the horse became ill. So he called the veterinarian, who said:

"Well, your horse has a virus. He must take this medicine for three days.
I'll come back on the 3rd day and if he's not better, we're going to have to put him down.

Nearby, the goat listened closely to their conversation.

The next day, they gave the horse the medicine and left.

The goat approached the horse and said: “Be strong, my friend.
Get up or else they're going to put you to sleep!”

On the second day, they again gave the horse the medicine and left.

The goat came back and said: "Come on buddy, get up or else you're going to die!
Come on, I'll help you get up. Let's go! One, two, three..."

On the third day, they came to give the horse the medicine and the vet said:
"Unfortunately, we're going to have to put him down tomorrow. Otherwise,
the virus might spread and infect the other horses".

After they left, the goat approached the horse and said: "Listen pal, it's now or never!
Get up, come on! Have courage! Come on! Get up! Get up! That's it, slowly! Great!
Come on, one, two, three... Good, good. Now faster, come on...... Fantastic! Run, run more!
Yes! Yay! Yes! You did it, you're a champion...!!!"

All of a sudden, the owner came back, saw the horse running in the field and began shouting:
It's a miracle! My horse is cured. We must have a grand party. Let's kill the goat!!!!

The Lesson:
Nobody truly knows which employee actually deserves the merit of success, or who's actually contributing the necessary support to make things happen.

Remember:
LEARNING TO LIVE WITHOUT RECOGNITION IS A SKILL!!!!

Friday, March 22, 2013

Different Methods of Trainings



On the Job Training Methods

On the job training methods are by far the most commonly used in training for all levels of personnel. The object of on the job training is to bring the employees to at least a minimum acceptable standard of performance in the shortest possible lime. The worker by these methods learns to master the operations involved on the actual job situation under the supervision of his immediate loss who has to carry the primary burden of conducting this training. Various methods of on the job training are as follows:-

     (1) On specific Job—The most common or formal on the job training programme is training for specific job. Current practice in job training has been strongly influenced by the war time training within industry which was first designed to improve the job performance through job instruction training. There are following methods of training:

              (i) Experience—This is the oldest method of on-the- job training. But as a sole approach, it is wasteful, time consuming and inefficient. It has been observed that it should be followed by other training methods to make it more effective. In a survey, it was found that they kept up to date through a variety of activities which were largely unrelated to formal continuing education courses. On the job, problem-solving and colleague interactions were prompted as being most important for professional growth by 62 per cent respondents.

              (ii) Coaching-On-the-job coaching by a superior is an important and potentially effective approach if superior is properly trained and oriented. The technique involves direct personnel instruction and guidance, usually, with extensive demonstration and continuous critical evaluation and correction. The advantage is increased motivation for the trainee and the minimisation of the problem of learning transfer from theory to practice. The danger in this method lies in the possible neglect of coaching by superior.

              (iii) Understudy—The understudy method is considered a somewhat different approach from those described above, that a certain person is specifically designated as the heir-apparent. The understudy method makes the trainee an assistant to the current job holder. The trainee learns by experience, observation and imitation. If decisions are discussed with the under study, he can become informed the policies and theories involved. The advantage of this method is that training is conducted in a practical and realistic situation. However disadvantages are many. The method tends to perpetuate mistakes and deficiencies of existing managereial practices. Morever, the understudies are frequently neglected by those they assist.


     (2) Position Rotation—The major objective of job rotation training is the broadening of the background of trainee in the organisation. If trainee is rotated periodically from one job to another job, he acquires a general background. The main advantages are: it provides a general background to the trainee, training takes place in actual situation, competition can be stimulated among the rotating trainees, and it stimulates a more co-operative attitude by exposing a man to other fellow's problems and viewpoints. There are certain disadvantages of this method. The productive work can suffer because of the obvious disruption caused by such changes. Rotations become less useful as specialisation proceeds, for few people have the breadth of technical knowledge and skills to move from one functional area to another.

     (3) Special Projects—This is a very flexible training device. Such special project assignments grow ordinarily out of an individual analysis of weaknesses. The trainee may be asked to perform special assignment; thereby he learns the work procedure. Sometime a task force is created consisting of a number of trainees representing different functions in the organisation. Trainees not only acquire knowledge about the assigned activities, but also learn how to work with others.

     (4) Selective Reading—Individuals in the organisation can gather and advance their knowledge and background through selective reading. The reading may include professional journals and books. Various business organisations maintain libraries for their own executives. Many executives become members of professional associations and they exchange their ideas with others. This is a good method for assimilating knowledge; however, some executives claim that it is very difficult to find time to do much reading other than absolutely required in the performance of their jobs.

     (5) Apprenticeship—Apprentice training can be traced back to medieval times when those intended on learning trade skill bound themselves to a master craftsman to learn by doing the work under his guidance. In earlier periods, apprenticeship was not restricted to artisans, but was used in training for the professions, including medicine, law, dentistry, and teaching. Today's industrial organisations require large number of skilled craftsmen who can be trained by this system. Such training is either provided by the organisations or it is also imparted by governmental agencies. Most States now have apprenticeship laws with supervised plans for such training. Arrangements usually provide a mixed programme of classroom and job experience.

     (6) Vestibule Schools—Large organisations frequently provided what are described as vestibule schools, a preliminary to actual shop experience. As far as possible, shop conditions are duplicated, but instructive, not output, are major objective, with special instructors provided. Vestibule schools are widely used in training for clerical and office jobs as well as for factory production jobs. Such training is usually shorter and less complex than that adaptable to the apprenticeship system. Vestibule training is relatively expensive, but these costs are justified if the volume of training is large, or if uniform, high-standard results are important.

Off-the-job Training Methods

In these methods, trainees have to leave their workplace and devote their entire time to the development objective. In these methods development of trainees is primary and any usable work produced during training is secondary. Following training techniques are used off-the-job:

      1. Special course and lectures—Lecturing is the most traditional form of formal training method. Special courses and lectures can be established by business organisations in numerous ways as a part of their development programmes. First, there are courses which the organisations themselves establish to be taught by members of the organisation. Some organisations have regular instructors assigned to their training and development departments such as Tata and Hindustan Lever in private sector, Life Insurance Corporation, State Bank of India and other nationalised commercial banks, Reserve Bank, Hindustan Steel, Fertilizer Corporation and many others in public sector. A second approach to special courses and lectures is for organisations to work with universities or institutes in establishing a course or series of % courses to be taught by instructors of these institutes. A third approach is for the organisations to send personnel to programmes established by the universities, institutes and other bodies, Such courses are organised for a short period ranging from 2-3 days to a few weeks. The first such programme was the Sloan Fellowship Programme, established in 1931 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. In India, such courses are organised frequently by the Institute of Management, Administrative Staff College of India, National Productivity Council, NITIE, All India Management Association and some other organisations and universities. ,

     2. Conferences -This is also an old method, but still a favourite training method. In order to escape the limitations of straight lecturing many organisations have adopted guided-discussion type of conferences in their training programmes In this method, the participants pool their ideas and experience in attempting to arrive at improved methods of dealing with the problems which are common subject of discussion) Conferences may include buzz sessions that divide conferences into small groups of four or five for intensive discussion. These small groups then report back to the whole conference with their conclusions or questions. Conference method allows the trainees to look at the problem from a broader angle. These conferences, however, have certain limitations. Unless the discussion is directed to the fell needs of the participants that may well feel that the whole session is useless.

     3. Case Studies - This technique, which has been developed and popularised by the Harvard Business School, U.S.A. is one of the most common form of training. Acase is a written account of a trained reporter or analyst seeking to describe an actual situation. Some cases are merely illustrative, others are detailed and comprehensive demanding extensive and intensive analytical ability. Cases are widely used in a variety of programmes) This method increases the trainee's power of observation, helping him to ask better questions and to look for a broader range of problems. A well chosen case may promote objective discussion, but the lack of emotional involvement may make it difficult to effect any basic change in the behaviour and attitude of trainees.

     4. Brainstorming—This is the method of stimulating trainees to creative thinking. This approach developed by Alex Osborn seeks to reduce inhibiting forces by providing for a maximum of group participation and a minimum of criticism, A problem is posed and ideas are invited. Quantity rather than quality is the primary objective; Ideas are encouraged and criticism of any idea is discouraged. Chain reactions from idea to idea often develop. Later, these ideas are critically examined. There is no trainer in brainstorming and it has been found that the introduction of known experts into it will reduce the originality and practicability of the group contributions. Brainstorming frankly favours divergence, and this fact may be sufficient to explain why brainstorming is so little used as yet in developing countries where new solutions ought to carry the highest premium. It is virtually untried even though its immediate use is limited to new ideas only, not change in behaviour.

     5. Laboratory Training-Laboratory training adds to conventional training by providing situations in which the trainees themselves experience through their own interaction some of the conditions they are talking about. In this way, they more or less experiment on themselves. Laboratory training is more concerned about changing individual behaviour and attitude. It is generally more successful in changing job performance than conventional training methods. There are two methods of laboratory training—simulation and sensitivity training.

                A. Simulation—An increasingly popular technique of management development is simulation of performance. In this method, instead of taking participants into the field can be simulated in the training session itself. Simulation is the presentation of real situation of organisations in the training session. It covers situations of varying complexities and roles for the participants. It creates a whole field organisation, relates participants through key roles in it, and has them deal with specific situations of a kind they encounter in real life. There are two common simulation methods of training: role-playing is one and business game is the other.

                                 (i) Role-Playing—Role-Playing is laboratory method which can be used rather easily as a supplement to conventional training methods. Its purpose is to increase the trainee's skill in dealing with other people. One of its greatest uses is in connection with human relations training but it is also used in sales training as well. It is spontaneous acting of a realistic situation involving two or more persons under class room situations. Dialogue spontaneously grows out of the situation, as it is developed by the trainees assigned to it. Other trainees in the group serve as observers or critics. Since people lake roles every day, they are somewhat experienced in the art, and with a certain amount of imagination they can project themselves into roles other than their own. Since a manager is regularly acting roles in his relationship with others, it is essential for him to have role awareness and to do role thinking so that he can size up each relationship and develop the most effective interaction possible. Role-playing has many advantages. By this method, a trainee can broaden his experience by trying different approaches, while in actual situation; he often has only one chance. In evaluation of role-playing in sue firms, it was found that such sessions resulted in an increase in sensitivity and improved quality of actions of a work sample involving a human relations difficulty. Role-playing also has weaknesses which partly offset its values. It is time consuming and expensive. It requires experienced trainers because it can easily turn sour without effective direction.

                               (ii) Gaming—Gaming has been devised to simulate the problems of running a company or even a particular department. It has been used for a variety of training objectives, from investment strategy, collective bargaining techniques, to the morale of clerical personnel. It has been used at all levels, from the lop executives to the production supervisors. Gaming is a laboratory method in which role-playing exists but its difference is that it focuses attention on administrative problems, while role-playing tends to emphasise mostly feeling and tone between people in interaction. Gaming involves several teams, each of which is given a firm to operate for a number of periods. Usually the period is a short one, one year or so. In each period, each team makes decisions on various matters such as fixation of price, level of production, inventory level, and so forth'. Since each team is competing with others, each firm's decisions will affect the results of all others. All the firm's decisions are fed into a computer which is programmed to behave somewhat like a real market. The computer provides the results, and the winner is the team which has accumulated largest profit. In the light of such results, strengths and weaknesses of decisions are analysed.

                 B. Sensitivity Training—Sensitivity training is the most controversial laboratory training method. Many of its advocates have an almost religious zeal in their enhancement with the training group experience. As a result of criticism and experience, a somewhat revised approach, often described as 'team development' training, has appeared.

Sensitivity training is a small-group interaction under stress in an unstructured encounter group which requires people to become sensitive to one another's feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity.T-group has several characteristic features:

                (i) the T-group is generally small, from ten to twenty members;
                (ii) the group begins its activity with no formal agenda;
                (iii) the role of trainer is primarily to call attention from time to time to the on going process within the group;
                (iv) the procedure tends to develop interspection and self-examination, with emotional levels of involvement and behaviour and the possibility of colleagues and some breakdown of established insulation and self-defence on the part of individuals. The objectives of such training are increased openness with others, more concern for others, increased tolerance for individual differences, less ethnic prejudice, understanding of a group process, enhanced listening skills, and increased trust and support.

Thursday, March 21, 2013

Story - Learn from Mistakes

Thomas Edison tried two thousand different materials in search of a filament for the light bulb. When none worked satisfactorily, his assistant complained, “All our work is in vain. We have learned nothing.”

Edison replied very confidently, “Oh, we have come a long way and we have learned a lot. We know that there are two thousand elements which we cannot use to make a good light bulb.”

Wednesday, March 20, 2013

Different State(s) of Mind

There are four types of brain wave that can occur while you’re thinking, sleeping, dreaming, concentrating and doing what you do – those brain waves are called Beta, Alpha, Theta & Delta.


Take a look at the brain wave states that occur with certain activities:
Cycles per second
Type of brain wave
Activities
21 > 14
BETA
Fully Conscious / Awake – the conscious mind is busy, concentrating and engaged in this state
14 > 7
ALPHA
    Light Sleep / Dreams / Meditation / Daydreams/ Creative Visualization / Connection to the subconscious
7 > 4
THETA
  Deep Sleep / Lucid dreaming / Deep Trance / Deep Hypnosis
3 > 1
DELTA
Very deep sleep or an unconscious state

1) Beta (14-40Hz) – The Waking Consciousness And Reasoning Wave
Beta brain waves are associated with normal waking consciousness and a heightened state of alertness, logic and critical reasoning.

While Beta brain waves are important for effective functioning throughout the day, they also can translate into stress, anxiety and restlessness.

The voice of Beta can be described as being that nagging little inner critic that gets louder the higher you go into range. Therefore, with a majority of adults operate at Beta; it’s little surprise that stress is today’s most common health problem.


2) Alpha (7.5-14Hz) – The Deep Relaxation Wave
Alpha brain waves are present in deep relaxation and usually when the eyes are closed, when you’re slipping into a lovely daydream or during light meditation. It is an optimal time to program the mind for success and it also heightens your imagination, visualization, memory, learning and concentration.

It is the gateway to your subconscious mind and lies at the base of your conscious awareness. The voice of Alpha is your intuition, which becomes clearer and more profound the closer you get to 7.5Hz.


3) Theta (4-7.5Hz) – The Light Meditation And Sleeping Wave
Theta brain waves are present during deep meditation and light sleep, including the all-important REM dream state. It is the realm of your subconsciousness and only experienced momentarily as you drift off to sleep from Alpha and wake from deep sleep (from Delta).

It is said that a sense of deep spiritual connection and unity with the universe can be experienced at Theta. Your mind’s most deep-seated programs are at Theta and it is where you experience vivid visualizations, great inspiration, profound creativity and exceptional insight. Unlike your other brain waves, the elusive voice of Theta is a silent voice.

It is at the Alpha-Theta border, from 7Hz to 8Hz, where the optimal range for visualization, mind programming and using the creative power of your mind begins. It’s the mental state which you consciously create your reality. At this frequency, you are conscious of your surroundings however your body is in deep relaxation.


4) Delta (0.5-4Hz) – The Deep Sleep Wave - Unconscious State
The Delta frequency is the slowest of the frequencies and is experienced in deep, dreamless sleep and in very deep, transcendental meditation where awareness is fully detached.

Delta is the realm of your unconscious mind, and the gateway to the universal mind and the collective unconscious, where information received is otherwise unavailable at the conscious level.

Among many things, deep sleep is important for the healing process – as it’s linked with deep healing and regeneration. Hence, not having enough deep sleep is detrimental to your health in more ways than one.


5) Gamma (above 40Hz) – The Insight Wave
This range is the most recently discovered and is the fastest frequency at above 40Hz. While little is known about this state of mind, initial research shows Gamma waves are associated with bursts of insight and high-level information processing.



The value of Time


Imagine there is a bank that credits your account each morning with $86,400.

It carries over no balance from day to day. Every evening deletes whatever part of the balance you failed to use during the day.

What would you do?

Draw out every cent, of course!!!

Each of us has such a bank. Its name is TIME.

Every morning, it credits you with 86,400 seconds. Every night it writes off, as lost, whatever of this you have failed to invest to good purpose. It carries over no balance. It allows no overdraft. Each day it opens a new account for you. Each night it burns the remains of the day. If you fail to use the day’s deposits, the loss is yours.

There is no going back. There is no drawing against the “tomorrow”. You must live in the present on today’s deposits. Invest it so as to get from it the utmost in health, happiness, and success!

The clock is running. Make the most of today.

Secret of success: Get the mind-set of an ant!


All of us tend to look up to big people for lessons on how to get better. We are keen to learn the secrets of their success. But we forget that sometimes the biggest lessons in life come from the smallest folks around us. Now that’s a good lesson to remember!

Take ants for instance. Would you believe those small creatures can teach us how to live a better life? where we learn from ‘Ants Philosophy’.

There are four key lessons from the behavior of ants that can help us lead better lives. 

1. Ants never quit. Have you noticed how ants always look for a way around an obstacle? Put your finger in an ant’s path and it will try and go around it, or over it. It will keep looking for a way out. It won’t just stand there and stare. It won’t give up and go back.
We should all learn to be like that. There will always be obstacles in our lives. The challenge is to keep trying, keep looking for alternative routes to get to our goals. Winston Churchill probably paraphrased the ant’s mindset when he offered this priceless advice: “Never give up. Never, never give up!”

2. Ants think winter all summer. Remember the old story of the ant and the grasshopper? In the middle of summer, the ant was busy gathering food for the winter ahead – while the grasshopper was out having a good time. Ants know that summer - the good times – won’t last forever. Winters will come. That’s a good lesson to remember. When the going is good, don’t be so arrogant as to believe that a crisis or a setback cannot happen to you. Be good to other people. Save for a rainy day. Look ahead. And remember, good times may not last, but good people do.

3. Ants think summer all winter. As they suffer through the unbearable cold of the winter, ants keep reminding themselves that it won’t last forever, and that summer will soon be here. And with the first rays of the summer sun, the ants come out – ready to work, ready to play. When we are down and seemingly out, when we go through what looks like a never-ending crisis, it’s good to remind ourselves that this too shall pass. Good times will come. It’s important to retain a positive attitude, an attitude that says things will get better. As the old saying goes, tough times don’t last. Tough people do.

4. Ants do all they possibly can. How much food does an ant gather in summer? All that it possibly can! Now that’s a great work ethic to have. Do all you can! One ant doesn’t worry about how much food another ant is collecting. It does not sit back and wonder why it should have to work so hard. Nor does it complain about the poor pay! Ants just do their bit. They gather all the food they can. Success and happiness are usually the result of giving 100% - doing all you possibly can. If you look around you, you’ll find that successful people are those who just do all they possibly can.


And there’s just one more lesson to learn from ants. Did you know that an ant can carry objects up to 20 times their own weight? Maybe we are like that too. We can carry burdens on our shoulders and manage workloads that are far, far heavier than we’d imagine. Next time something’s bothering you and weighing you down, and you feel you just can’t carry on, don’t fret. Think of the little ant. And remember, you too can carry a lot more on your shoulders!